Biology: Cell Structure I Nucleus Medical Media



This animation by Nucleus shows you the function of plant and animal cells for middle school and high school biology, including organelles like the nucleus, …

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  3. Notes:

    -Cells are the smallest living units of an organism.

    -All cells have three things in common, a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA

    -Cell Membrane= Separates the inside of the cell from its environment.

    -Cytoplasm= Jelly-like fluid

    – DNA= The cell's genetic material

    -Eukaryotic Cells have organelles (which includes nucleus and other special parts).

    -Eukaryotic Cells= More complex/advanced (found in plants & animals).

    -Prokaryotic Cells= No nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles. They have genetic material, but are not contained in nucleus.

    -Prokaryotic Cells= Unicellular (Oned cell)

    -Organelles= Little Organs= Specialized parts of cells that have unique jobs.

    -Nucleus= Control Center of the Cell= Contains DNA (genetic material)= Dictates what cell is gonna do and how it will do it.

    -Chromatin= Spread out form of DNA found inside nuclear membranes.

    -When cells divide, DNA condenses into structures, chromosomes.

    -Nucleus contains nucleolus= structures where ribosomes are made

    -When ribosomes leave DNA= Ribosomes job= Synthesizing (making proteins).

    -Outside nucleus, ribosomes and rest of organelles float around in cytoplasm (Jelly-like substance/liquid). Ribosomes wander freely or attached to ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum).

    -Two types of ER= Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER)( has ribosomes attached to it) & Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (sER)( doesn’t have ribosomes attached to it).

    -Endoplasmic Reticulum= membrane enclosed passage for transporting materials (ex. Proteins synthesized by ribosomes). Proteins and other materials emerge from endoplasmic reticulum in small vesicles, where Golgi apparatus receives them. When proteins move in the golgi body their customized forms cells can use, Golgi folds them into usable shapes or add materials (ex. Lipids or carbohydrates).

    -Vacuoles= sac likes structures= store different materials. Plant cell, the central vacuole stores water.

    -Animal still has organelle, Lysosome= collects damaged/worn out cell parts. Also filled with enzymes that break down cellular debris.

    -Mitochondrion= organelle= powerhouse for both animal & plant cells. During process, cellular respiration, Mitochondria makes ATP Molecules= Provides energy for all cell activities. Cells that need more energy have more mitochondria, the cell still maintains shape through a cytoskeleton.

    -Cytoskeleton= thread-like microfilaments (made from protein) and microtubes (thin hollow tubes).

    -Plants= Photoautotrophic (capture sunlight for energy) have cells with an organelle= Chloroplast= where photosynthesis happens= green because it has pigment called chlorophyll.

    -Plants cells have a cell wall outside the membrane= to shape, support, protect plant cell.

    -Animal cells= No cell wall.

    Many other unique structures that some cells don’t have (ex. Respiratory tract is lined with cells= Cilia microscopic hair-like projections= Can move in waves= Traps inhaled particles in air and expels when you cough.)

    -Bacteria= some have Flagella= Has little tail for cell to move.

    -Only human cell that has flagella is sperm cell.

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